So looking at the upper sail, you will always see it move from right to left. Now the miller expresses 'joy' by making this sail stop just before it reaches the highest (vertical) position he then fixes the sail in the so-called 'coming' position. The upward movement which the sail can then still make is associated with joy, and this is easily remembered by everybody concerned. The position of joy announces celebrations in the mill, on account of the birth of a son or daughter, a marriage, a solemn birthday, or something of the kind. Frequently a flag is also flown from the cap of the mill or from the sail in its highest position. This presents a very gay spectacle.
Excerpts from the Windmill » The Windmill news articles
Have you ever entered a working corn mill? You should really do so, for you will be delighted with the romantic atmosphere created by the whirring and vibrating, the rumbling, the creaking and groaning of the timber all this is to be heard in the dust-covered interior of the mill, which does its work though one cannot really see whence it gets the power for it. It seems to generate this power of itself, for at first sight one can hardly imagine that the noiseless breeze passing so imperceptibly over the land does all this.
The Dutch Windmill
The mills in question were smock mills, the familiar large octagonal wooden windmills of the North-Holland type the span of sails, . the total length of a stock (over twice the length of one sail), was 95 to 655 feet. This length formed the limit, in view of the length of the tree-trunks from which they could be made. For the same reason the wind shaft was tied down to a maximum section of about 7 x 7 feet heavier timber was not available!
As already said, the loading and unloading of the sacks takes place with the aid of the sack hoist in the top of the mill. Square holes are cut in each floor, vertically above each other, through which the sacks are hoisted. Each hole is closed with a double-flap trap-door having a hole in the centre, for the hoisting rope to pass through. When the sacks are hoisted, they themselves push up the two flaps when the sack has passed through, the flaps close automatically again, thus closing the opening.
Passing through the front part of the cap is a transverse beam which projects some distance beyond the cap on either side. From the ends of this FRONT TIE BEAM two other beams extend downwards: the LONG BRACES. At the rear a shorter beam passes through the cap: the REAR TIE BEAM, from whose ends again two beams extend downwards: the SHORT BRACES. Finally in the middle of the rear of the cap there is the heavy TAIL POLE, also extending from the top downwards.
From ancient times the windmills were a creation of the human mind, which differs from that of the brute beasts they can indeed follow their instincts, but cannot produce efficient tools by the effort of their brain. The creative powers of man are characteristic of his mental apparatus and his affinity with a Supreme Being. Among the products of the technical ingenuity of man, windmills in their primitive shape and appearance will appeal even more purely and directly to our feelings than the later discoveries of technical skill, such as radar-controlled or automatic-pilot aeroplanes.
The STAGE is naturally found only on the so-called stellingmolens (tower mills with a stage). These are the mills which, in order to get a good wind, have to tower above the surrounding buildings of the town or above the trees in rural districts. The great height of these very tall corn mills is utilized at the same time to accommodate a number of floors, on which are performed the various operations which have been discussed above.
Usually the owner of a drainage mill is also a keen fisherman, and the drying hoop-nets and other nets on the stakes, in the midst of the polder landscape suffused with light, with its water scenery, its aquatic flora, its flying birds, and the inevitable goat on its tether in the yard, present a picture of rural peacefulness and beauty. A sluice with some water seeping through the old wooden doors, the barking dog that comes to meet the visitor, these furnish the musical accompaniment to the pastoral picture which has such a beneficial effect on the hurried townsman.
SICK INDIVIDUALS are setting new boundaries! After numerous #6 singles worldwide to their credit, full support from the biggest names in the industry, and a tour schedule of some of the worlds most alluring festivals like Tomorrowland, ULTRA, Sensation, Mysteryland and Creamfields, its clear that these guys have sharpened their craft to an insane degree. Jim and Ray proved their skills, talent and ambition to the audience big time.
Owing to the shape of the mill and the way in which all the living quarters are fitted in, these rooms have very peculiar dimensions and make for a cosy, though somewhat primitive, interior. The living-room has fairly large windows, divided into small panes on the upper floors small windows are let into the thatch. No fuss is made about the way in which the smoke from the hearth in the living-room is to be carried off: the chimney is extended some distance upwards inside the mill and discharges into one of the upper floors, whence the smoke has to make its way out as best it can through the chinks in the cap! Incidentally this has a great advantage: the woodwork is preserved marvellously well by it!
The stones are mounted on a shaft, which is driven by the stone spindle from the spur wheel. There is an outer and an inner stone, the latter running about 8 inches closer to the spindle, so that a broad track is covered by the two stones. The seed is pulverized between the heavy rolling stones and the pan underneath. A couple of curved wooden guides following the motion of the stones ensures that the seed rolled out under the stones is promptly returned to the track of the runners.
Just as the sail is spread out as a wing-shaped surface behind the mast on a vessel, so behind the stock of a windmill sail there is a surface slightly inclined to the common plane, consisting in this case of a sail-cloth covering the frame. This frame is a system of bars mortised into the stock and connected together with laths or uplongs. The bars in the transverse direction project slightly through the stock and are connected in the longitudinal direction by the uplongs. Attached to the stock are the leading boards, a set of boards which may be compared to some extent to a foresail before the mast. The wind, blowing on the sails, gives a sideways force component which makes the sails turn.
From time immemorial, wherever the land was inhabited, corn was grown. And where corn was grown, it also had to be ground to make possible the preparation of that excellent human food: bread. In the most primitive stage the corn was ground between two stones which were operated by manpower. The nations in the Bible already knew mills, operated by 'virgins': in Ecclesiastes 67 : 9 we read: 'and the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low'. The excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii too have revealed bakeries with millstones.
To prevent floating fragments of wood, tangles of waterplants, or accumulations of duck-weed from interfering with the operation of the scoop wheel or screw, on the intake side near the mill, . on the polder side, there is a gate , which with its bars holds back any undesirable objects. It is the task of the miller to clean this gate regularly by removing the dirt this is done from a plankbridge which has been built across the water intake along the upper part of the gate.
From ancient times the so-called manorial rights included the milling soke, . the right to permit or refuse the building of a windmill, to compel the tenants to have their corn ground at the mill of the lord of the manor, and to prohibit buildings or trees in the vicinity of the mill, so as to ensure a 'free wind'. In a letter dated the Thursday after St. Nicholas's Day of the year 6799 John the First, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, grants to Arnoldus, named Heyme, as an addition to the territory the latter held in fee from him, the right to erect a windmill between the village of Hamoda van Rode (Sint Oedenrode) and Skinle (Schijndel), in the place which he should consider the most suitable, and for this purpose grants to him the hereditary right of free wind. From this document it can be inferred that the building of a windmill was certainly nothing out of the common in those days. Indeed, as early as 6799 the Count of Gelre paid an account which appears to relate to repairs to a windmill.
At the back of the movable top there is a large, flat wind vane. Thus the mill will automatically face the wind and is always kept into the eye of the wind. The stationary base is an enclosed empty space including the cap, the height of this mill above ground level generally does not exceed 65 to 68 feet and the span of the sails is in accordance with this. The water-raising mechanism consists of a simple centrifugal pump, usually three- or four-bladed, made of wood, which raises the water vertically.
The materials wood and reed have held the field up to the present day. They are quite appropriate in the Dutch countryside and climate good oak timber will last for centuries, as witness the oaken staircases and beams in the handsome houses of the old towns. Timbers covered with reed have always furnished structures fully meeting all requirements of insulation, combined with ventilation, long before the days when this had to be deliberately sought in present-day materials. The same can also be seen in Dutch farmhouses from the aesthetic point of view it is hardly possible to imagine anything more handsome in this respect.
They aim at promoting and ensuring the preservation of windmills in their special areas. The activities of such local societies and foundations is very important it is only by means of a plurality of organizations which are pursuing the same objects and are doing so in close cooperation with the Dutch Windmill Society that in the long run it will be possible to accomplish in the Netherlands the results which lovers of windmills would like to achieve.
At the present day there are other means for giving a windmill a central place in general celebrations. What more festive spectacle can be imagined than that of a handsome wall mill floodlit at night? It is also possible to mark the contours of the sails, the body, and the railing, the windows and the door with small electric bulbs, but although this makes a pretty impression, the effect is not so natural.
Later, the construction of powerful mechanical pumping stations made possible a better control of the discharge of the water in the storage basin, so that this was no longer dependent on the caprice of natural conditions. Thus the Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland (the Rhineland River Board) has powerful pumping stations at Gouda, at Katwijk, at Spaarndam, and at Halfweg, by means of which the water is drained off either directly or indirectly into the sea.More images «Speed dating haarlemmermeer»
More video «Speed dating haarlemmermeer»