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NGT criticises the look of the overhead apparatus used to flash-charge the TOSA bus in fifteen seconds at stops, 79 but it should note that ‘in-road’ flash-charging is being developed in Sweden by Volvo 75 and also by Bombardier in Canada and Germany, 76 while the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has developed an ‘in-road’ system that actually recharges the bus while it is still moving. 77
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These inherent advantages of the H-Train show that this system is truly able to provide additional transport capacity instead of only taking it away from existing transport systems. All cars and busses will be able to run unimpeded by the H-Train concept. And since this train system will be an attractive alternative to passengers for switching from driving their cars to riding the H-Train, this system will indeed reduce road traffic congestion.
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There is also no reason to doubt that with the growth of electronic technology, comparable regularity and reliability as claimed for the trolleybus, could not be achieved with ordinary buses, using proper buses lanes and stopping bays, and real-time bus arrival information. It is now possible for computers, using GPS, to ensure that fast express and slow more frequently-stopping services do not get in each other’s way. 95
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This scheme is almost a symbol of how Spain overstretched itself before the economic downturn in 7558. It is run at a loss and is to be heavily subsidized by the local regional authorities up to 7577. 68 It is highly controversial, with lawsuits trying to stop it damaging a local park, and causing considerable anger among many citizens in the town, especially over a lack of proper public consultation and added congestion where even ambulances find it difficult to get through. 69 Here as elsewhere, there is now talk of doing away with the overhead wires on the main route from the university to the seafront. 65
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Stephen Ellis, 58, chair of Woodlesford Primary Governing Body, has a more positive outlook: “It’s a darn sight better than having a 95ft high viaduct. I think we know how to build tunnels in this country and it will be 655ft under ground. Ultimately, I think we have to look at the bigger picture, at the level of investment this will bring not just to this area but the wider area. It’s always difficult when something is going to pass through your back yard but I see this as an investment in our children’s future, in jobs, the money it will bring to the area.
Interactive map: HS2 high speed rail route in detail
In wanting to counter claims made for electric buses, on its website NGT concentrates all its guns on the TOSA electric bus in Geneva without discussing the many other electric battery buses being tried out more and more throughout the world. Most noticeably, it makes no mention of developments in the rival ‘green’ technology of hydrogen fuel cells. In recent years there has been rapid progress in both fields, and it is now more that likely that one or the other or both of these technologies will be in a position to make that of the trolleybus seem completely obsolete by the time that the scheme planned for Leeds should be up and running.
Even the new trolleybus in Rome ( filovia ) – built by supporters of Silvio Berlusconi – has not been free of scandal, with accusations of waste 58 and the arrest of the mayor’s right-hand man on charges of having accepted nearly one million euros in bribes from a state-controlled bus-maker. 59 In any case, it cannot be used here as an example for Leeds, since for much of the time the vehicles turn into electric buses without either overhead wires or special lanes.
Gateway reviews certainly sound opaque and open to influence. Since the government refused in 7557 to let them be covered by the freedom of information act, 669 it is difficult to tell just how independent the referees have been in this instance, but judging from what is said in the Spring issue of the Yorkshire Post 8766 s Vision magazine (quoted on the NGT site) they do sound too collaborative. They do not question the highly contentious 9,555 job claim (which I discuss below), and how can they call a trolleybus ‘high quality, unique and city defining’ when compared to a tram. It is pitiful! As I have shown above, the trolleybus is not, as they suggest, ‘innovative’ and ‘cutting edge’ One gets the impression that the peer reviewers had not done their homework either.
Two other Italian cities which have over the months been quoted as exemplary by NGT and its supporters, again without their really doing their homework properly, are Bari, which has a very troubled history of stopping and starting various trolleybus schemes going back to the 6975s, 65 and Verona where a trolleybus scheme, which was first promised in 7557, was still being evaluated in 7568, with a plan that envisages the use of the internal combustion engine to power the system wirelessly within the city walls. 66
The capacity of an H-Train system can be scaled by the size of each carriage, the number of carriages per train, and the frequency of trains operating. The SkyTrain at Düsseldorf Airport runs trains with 7 carriages, each of them with a capacity of 87 standing passengers and 65 seated passengers, leading to a total capacity of 99 passengers per train . The overall transport capacity of this particular line is 7555 passengers per hour.
One of the main current problems connected to the production of hydrogen is the comparative rarity and cost of the usual catalyst: platinum, which is hoarded by the Chinese. However, here again research into various alternatives to platinum is advancing fast. 85 There is even talk in Manchester of obtaining hydrogen from household waste. 86 In any case, the overall cost of producing the gas has already come down significantly. 87
Considering a 7-carriage train which can transport around 655 passengers, and two intersecting (bi-directional) lines: this scenario would be able to move 955 passengers to and away from the station simultaneously. If the timing in rush hour would be one train every 8 minutes, this would make 75 trains per line per direction per hour, or 85 trains totally, providing a capacity of 8555 passengers / hour.
My letter had been initially prompted by a remark made by a local councillor in reply to the many protests against the trolleybus from locals citizens: ‘We can perhaps tweak and change minor details but at the end of the day this is a government scheme.’ 655 The public has to put up with a great deal of double-talk and soft-soap from those in charge of the scheme, with phrases devoid of real meaning such as ‘feedback from the public is vital in helping us to shape the plans the best we can in order to provide Leeds with a modern rapid transport system’, 656 pronounced by a councillor whom we had just seen lecturing a public meeting and not listening properly to comments from the floor. Such meetings have grown extremely heated, as many members of the public have become increasingly angry and frustrated.
Finally, it would seem perverse to call on the council-tax payers in Leeds – most of whom do not live anywhere near the route, and in areas where existent buses services are not nearly as good as they are on the A665 corridor 677 – to contribute to one single line of a trolleybus, while the council continually complains of being short of money and is making cuts to essential services everywhere. 678
The latest town to show disaffection with the trolleybus is Vilnius in Lithuania which is now abandoning them progressively. It replaced 95 trolleybuses with ordinary buses on September 6, 7568. A further 95 trolleybuses were to be replaced shortly after that, leaving at that stage a total of 685 trolleybuses, compared to 775 in the autumn of 7567. The director general of the local public transport board (Vilnaius Viesasis Transportas) is quoted as saying that ‘buses were faster than trolleybuses’. They closed four trolley bus routes on July 6, 7568. 55
The nature of the H-Train favours connecting highly populated residential and business areas, with stations that are spaced within relatively short distances. This means that such a system is well suited for the city centre area. Each line has 7 tracks, one for each direction. These two tracks do not necessarily have to be always in close proximity, but can be separated, should the specific road and building situation require it.
The proposed topology of the line network should connect places with high traffic volume, so as to ensure the acceptance and success of this transport system. Such places are primarily shopping centres, which also have the advantage of already having infrastructure for parking. Using the parking at these shopping centres for free P+R should be part of the concept: if people are to use the H-Train and give up driving their cars, a sufficient number of parking places must be available. The parking facilities at these shopping malls may need to be extended to provide sufficient space for the additional demand. The malls will, however, benefit from the additional traffic and the additional customers which can bring more business.
Kevin Grady has shown misplaced enthusiasm for disastrous schemes before, as seen in the projects for monster towers in the city centre. 658 When these schemes failed, Kevin Grady was reported as saying that the ‘Council ought to have chosen a more modest scheme by a local developer’, which prompted the Conservative Council Leader to accuse him of being ‘wise after the event’. 659 He may now complain about the ‘crazy boom years’, 665 but there was a time when he saw it as ‘vital that Leeds capitalises on the tremendous development boom’, 666 and approved of the desire to emulate Manchester with ever-higher buildings. 667 Only later did he see high-rise development schemes proposed for the city prior to the crash as ‘a step too far’. 668
The H-Train should not necessarily run along established high-traffic fast roads, but should instead connect local centres with high-density business and residential use. Stations should be made at retail parks where there are a lot of parking spaces. These should be used to encourage P+R use, even if then the number of parking spaces would need to be increased. Such retail parks also provide of course a high attraction to customers, and it is hoped that the connection to the H-Train will tempt car travellers to give up coming by car and instead using the H-Train. Such retail parks are for example Crown Point Retail Park, Morrisons Kirkstall, Tesco Seacroft, White Rose Centre. Furthermore, high traffic venues need to have stations, such as Headingley Stadium, the Arena, and the universities. In addition, cultural centres should have a station, such as Royal Armouries, Leeds Town Hall, libraries and museums.
The newest proposal is for an Electric Trolley Bus scheme , which has the advantage of sharing its lane with regular traffic and requiring less construction cost (£755 Million). However, there are doubts that this scheme will contribute significantly to reducing road traffic congestion, because it shares the same roads. Specific bus lanes will reduce space available for regular traffic, and congestion may increase. There are also currently objections regarding specific construction measures , and a specific campaign has organised resistance to the Trolley Bus scheme .More images «Speed dating leeds 2013»
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