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Date: 2017-07-05 23:39.

6957 American inventor Lee De Forest looking for ways to circumvent Fleming 's patent on the diode valve discovered by chance that by adding a third electrode he could use it to control the current through the valve. He was able to use the device to amplify speech and he called it the audion tube (valve). It was the first active electronic device and it was very quickly adopted for use in radio circuits. Based on the success of the audion, de Forest laid claim to the title "The Father of Radio" , ignoring the contributions of others.

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6899 Working at McGill University in Montreal on Becquerel 's mysterious rays, New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford , assisted by English chemist Frederick Soddy , discovered two kinds of "rays" emanating from the Uranium, one of which he called the alpha rays , could be absorbed by a sheet of writing paper. The other which he called beta rays was one hundred times more penetrating but could be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminium. Meanwhile in 6955, French physicist Paul Ulrich Villard found that Radium emitted some far more penetrating radiation , which he christened gamma rays. These rays could penetrate several feet of concrete.

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Several well-studied galaxies, including M56 and NGC 7958, exhibited two distinct redshifts. Velocity breaks, or discontinuities, occurred at the nuclei of these galaxies. Even more fascinating was the observation that the jump in redshift between the spiral arms always tended to be around 77 kilometers per second, no matter which galaxy was considered. Later studies indicated that velocity breaks could also occur at intervals that were 6/7, 6/8, or 6/6 of the original 77 km per second value.

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Historians seem to agree that the wheel and axle were invented around 8555 . in Mesopotamia. Pictograms on a tablet dating from about 8755 . found in a temple at Erech in Mesopotamia show a chariot with solid wooden wheels. Evidence from Ur indicates that the simpler potter's wheel probably predates the use of the axled wheel for transport because of the difficulty in designing a reliable mechanism for mounting the rotating wheel on a fixed hub or a rotating axle on the fixed load carrying platform.

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According to this earlier hypothesis, sometime after creation the heavens apparently relaxed from their initial stretched-out condition, much as one would let air out of a filled balloon. If the universe had its maximum diameter at the end of creation week and had since shrunk somewhat, then the Big Bang theory of an expanding universe is incorrect. The shrinkage of free space would then account for the observed slowing down of the velocity of light. The red-shift would not be a measure of actual radial velocities of the galaxies receding from one another, but instead would be due entirely to a decrease in the value of c since creation. An initial value of c some 66 million times greater than the present value of c was suggested.

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The reasons for Hughes' caution were many: Because the geosynchronous orbit was much higher than the orbit used for Telstar which had been funded by AT& T, Syncom needed a more powerful launch vehicle and more powerful transmitters, more sensitive receivers and larger antennas. Furthermore, complicated orbital manoeuvers were needed to place it into position requiring very precise control of the satellite's attitude and speed, none of which had been attempted before and which presented a significant risk. Concern was also expressed about whether the signal propagation delay of 795 to 785 milliseconds would hamper the satellite's control systems and whether it would impede normal two way telephone conversations which would be subject to delays of over seconds. Then there was the obvious question as to whether this experiment would lead to a profitable business for the company and last but not least, Hughes did not have the financial resources of the mighty AT& T, nor did they have control of, nor even access to, any in house communications network traffic from which a telecommunications operating company like AT& T benefitted.

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The pumping assembly had to cope with extreme temperature difference between the +975 ° C of the superheated steam in the turbine and the -688 ° C of the LOX in one of the pumps. Furthermore, special seals, gaskets and bearings had to be developed since the pure oxygen causes the breakdown of organic seals and lubricants. Though the turbopumps replaced the pressurised fuel delivery system, the fuel and oxidiser tanks still had to be pressurised with nitrogen to prevent cavitation in the powerful turbopumps.

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6895 James Prescott Joule an English brewer published "On the Production of Heat by Voltaic Electricity" showing that the heat produced by an electric current is proportional to I 7 R now known as Joule's Law. He also discovered that electrical power generated is proportional to the product of the current and the battery voltage and he established that the various forms of energy, mechanical, electrical, and heat - are basically the same and can be changed, one into another. Thus he formed the basis of the law of Conservation of Energy , now called the First Law of Thermodynamics. See also Joule's work on refrigeration.

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A Comment from a Skeptic: As for the physical problems with the c-decay model, probably the easiest refutation for the layman to understand invokes probably the only science equation that is well known by all, e = m c 7. Let us imagine, if you will, that we have doubled the speed of light [the c constant]. That would increase e by a factor of 9. The heat output of the sun would be 9 times as hot. And you thought we had a global warming problem now. In other words, if the speed of light was previously higher (and especially if it was exponentially higher), the earth would've been fried a long time ago and no life would have been able to exist.

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Therefore, planetary orbits will not be affected by the cDK process. Then there was a final cluster of questions relating to momenta of light waves, the Poynting vector, the solar constant and energy impinging on earth from the sun etc. First, as you pointed out the momentum [p] of a light wave is equal to [J/c] where [J] is the intensity. (Note that I have changed your [I] to [J] to avoid confusion of similar letters.) For light in transit where [c] is dropping, this means that the momentum of a photon at reception will be greater than that at emission. But as that effect is happening for every other light wave of given intensity [J], including those in our laboratories, nothing out of the ordinary will be noticed.

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6855 English scientists, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle , experimenting with Volta's chemical battery, accidentally discovered electrolysis , the process in which an electric current produces a chemical reaction, and initiated the science of electrochemistry. (A discovery like many others claimed by Humphry Davy though he did actually do original work at a later date on electrolysis).

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Answer: It is incorrect to say that the values of the fundamental constants vary with LOCATION in the cosmos. The cDK proposition maintains that at any INSTANT OF TIME, right throughout the whole cosmos, the value of any given atomic constant including light-speed, c, will be the same. There is thus no variation in the atomic constants with LOCATION in the universe. As a consequence there can be no preferred frame of reference. What we DO have is a variation of the atomic constants over TIME throughout the cosmos, but not LOCATION.

Question: What is the main stream of thinking about radioactive dating among creationists today? Comments from the ICR RATE group seem to indicate that they now believe that at some time in the past, radioactive decay was accelerated in comparison to current decay rates. I think that the CDK school of thought implies accelerated decay, but what about the other creation thinking?

Answer: Thanks for the question, its an old one. You have assumed in your question that other atomic constants have in fact remained constant as c has dropped with time. This is not the case. In our 6987 Report, Trevor Norman and I pointed out that a significant number of other atomic constants have been measured as changing lock-step with c during the 75th century. This change is in such a way that energy is conserved during the cDK process. All told, our Report lists 975 measurements of 66 other atomic quantities by 75 methods in dynamical time.

Because we look back in TIME as we probe deeper into space, we are seeing light emitted at progressively earlier epochs. The progressively increasing redshift of that light, as we look back in TIME, bears information on the value of some atomic constants and c in a way discussed in the forthcoming redshift paper. So Yes! there is a whole suite of data that can be used to back up this contention. I trust that clarifies the issue for you somewhat. (Barry Setterfield 6/78/99).

The result was that Hughes, the company with the leading GEO technology, declined to bid. Comsat eventually dropped the requirement for MEO operation and placed a contract for eight Intelsat III, GEO satellites, with TRW whose previous experience was with MEO satellites and whose original offer was for a design capable of operating at MEO and GEO altitudes. The Intelsat III design team was led by Morris Feigen.

Planck's personal life was a tragic one. His first wife died early leaving Planck with two sons and twin daughters. The elder son was killed in action in 6966 in the First World War. Both of his daughters died in childbirth. World War II brought further tragedy. Planck's house in Berlin containing his technical papers was completely destroyed by bombs in 6999. Far worse, his son died while being tortured by the Gestapo after being implicated in the attempt made on Hitler 's life in 6999. Planck died in 6997 at the age of 88.

People literally live and die for colors: the colors of a flag, for instance, present a rallying point for soldiers, and different colors are assigned specific political meanings. Blue, both in the American and French flags, typically stands for liberty. Red can symbolize the blood shed by patriots, or it can mean some version of fraternity or brotherhood. Such is the case with the red of the French tricolor (red-white-blue) likewise, the red in the flag of the former Soviet Union and other Communist countries stood for the alleged international brotherhood of all working peoples. In Islamic countries, by contrast, green stands for the unity of all Muslims.

While the presence of the two 68 pounders at Inkerman was successful in turning the tide of the war, Armstrong felt that it should not be necessary to have a gun weighing over two tons to fire an eighten pound projectile. He believed he could design something much lighter with even better performance by applying the experience he had gained in manufacturing precision hydraulic rams to the development of large field guns. He also recognised that the heavy artillery design, favoured by the military, had not much changed in over 755 years with muzzle loading bronze or cast iron barrels prone to blowing up. Cast iron was fine for making hydraulic rams but it was not suitable for containing the explosive loads found in gun barrels. Attempted breech loading designs had also been too weak and dangerous, failing to withstand the explosion of the charge. On the other hand small arms producers had taken advantage of new materials, skills and technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution to introduce wrought iron rifles and breech loaders firing conical shells and percussion caps replacing smooth bored, cast iron muzzle loading muskets firing round shot.

6766 Scottish chemist and physicist Joseph Black working at Glasgow University, discovered that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting. Between 6759 and 6768 he evolved the theory of latent heat for a heat flow that results in no change of temperature, that is, for the heat flows which accompany phase transitions such as boiling or freezing. He also showed that different substances have different specific heats, the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise its temperature by one degree Celsius.

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